Yes. I think it can be done, using 3d map alone or combined with Forest Color.
In the attached scene i applied a 3d noise to the leaves. All trees use the same map, but using random rotation there are not noticeable patterns. I also used Forest Color to add some color variation.
Alternatively, it's possible to use several 3d maps, assigning each one of them to the Forest Color maps slots. In this way, each tree will use a different map randomly.
For sure we would get more interesting variations using other combinations. I hope that helps.